The Uses and Gratification theory discusses the effects of the media on people. 1. Each individual‘s actions and effects on those actions will depend solely on the situation. UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Uses and gratifications theory (UGT) is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch (1974) provided a framework for understanding the correlation between media and audience under five basic assumptions as follows: The people are not just passive receivers of the messages, but active influences of the message effect. The theory takes out the possibility that the media can have an unconscious influence over our lives and how we view the world. Revisiting uses and gratification theory: Mediation of Interpersonal Communication in linking Visual Communication through Holly Wood Movies and Media Orientation of young Girls Abstract The purpose of this study is twofold, to revisit the uses and gratification theory study proposes an interpersonal Uses and Gratification theory can be seen in cases such as personal music selection. Uses and Gratifications Theory posits a few basic assumptions:1. h��X�n�8�>�(��E$%���I��;MR�j�&�:v`�����)ʔ,_{Y�F�!9�3��PJ8 5a4B���㋤DH���(.P�`,�$@RF Uses and Gratifications has, almost since its inception, been viewed by some as the Pluto of communication theory, which is to say critics argue that it does not meet the standards necessary. SOME BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THEORY, METHOD, AND VALUE Perhaps the pace of "theory" and "method" in the study of audi-ence uses and gratifications is not immediately apparent. He is one of the most well-known that contributed greatly to establishing the structure of the approach. For the next few decades, uses and gratifications research mostly focused on the gratifications media users sought. In contrast to traditional media effects theories which focus on ―what media do to people‖ and assume audiences are homogeneous, Uses and Gratifications approach is more concerned with ―what people do with media‖ (Katz, 1959). Uses and Gratifications approach is an influential tradition in media research. Each of these studies formulated a list of functions served either by some specific content or by the medium itself: To match one‘s wits against others, to get information and advice for daily living, to provide a framework for one‘s day, to prepare oneself culturally for the demands of upward mobility, or to be reassured about the dignity and usefulness of one‘s role (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974). This theory had challenged the concept of the entire passive receiver as it concentrated on the active users. According to McQuail, (1994) what mass communication scholars today refer to as the Uses and Gratifications (U&G) approach is generally recognized to be a sub-tradition of media effects research. Users take an active part in the communication process and are goal-oriented in their media use. This is encompassing the idea that people use the media to their advantage more often than the media use them. uses and gratifications theory 23 range of communication opportunities, by “laying out a taxonomy of just what goes on in cyberspace” (Newhagen & Rafaeli, 1996, p. 11). It was the time when researchers studied some radio listeners. Elihu Katz has served both as a sociologist and as a communication researcher. Originators and Key Contributors:Uses and gratification theory builds off of a history of communication theories and research. Audience members then incorporate the content to fulfill their needs or to satisfy their interests (Lowery, 1999). Each of these studies formulated a list of functions served either by some specific content or by the medium itself: To match one‘s wits against others, to get information and advice for daily living, to provide a framework for one‘s day, to prepare oneself culturally for the demands of upward mobility, or to be reassured about the dignity and usefulness of one‘s role (Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974). Gratification theory What are the uses of gratification theory? Uses and Gratifications approach prevailed between the 1950s and 1970s when television gained high acceptability. Uses and Gratifications Theory Practitioners of the uses and gratifications theory study the ways the public consumes media. The Uses and Gratification Theory is a theory by Blumer and Katz in which proposes that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. Introduction- Uses and gratification theory The Uses and Gratifications Theory is a famous approach to understanding mass communication. Uses and Gratifications approach prevailed between the 1950s and 1970s when television gained high acceptability. endstream endobj startxref It is an audience-centered approach to media study focusing on the uses to which people put media and the gratifications they seek from that use. The media cannot manipulate the audience thereby making them independent in selection of information. Although scientists are likely to continue using traditional tools and typologies to answer questions about media use, there must be deliberate effort to expand current theoretical models of uses and gratifications. info@researchbase.com.ng. ทฤษฎีลำดับขั้นความต้องการ ของ Maslow 2. The receiver determines what is going to be absorbed and does not allow the media to influence him otherwise. According to the theory, media consumers have a free will to decide how they will use the media and how it will affect them. Since then, the research on this subject has been strengthened and extended. The core question of such research is: Why do people use media and what do they use them for? Their cooperating work produced important outgrowths that connect the concept of gratifications with the functional theory model. �df��7��4�Ed�l0�&����@$�>X�,�f��IG0y D2ā�-�@�q�"������e�A"ESA�0TvC�T�fk���� ��H�y:�����=l�#�3��y` )�� In other words, it can be said that the theory argues what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Uses and gratification theory is one of many communications theories that help to explain human’s relationship with mass media. According to Lowery & Nabila (1999) this theory states what people do with media rather than what media do to people. Instead, they believe there are as many reasons for using the media, as there are media users. Blumler and Katz‘s Uses and Gratification Theory suggests that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. Other articles summarize how uses and gratifications can inform the connections between mass and interpersonal communication. The current status of uses and gratifications is still based on Katz‘s first analysis, particularly as new media forms have emerged in such an electronic information age when people have more options of media use. The Uses and Gratification Theory. Uses and gratifications theory proposes that users/media consumers are actively choosing specific media content according to their needs. This latter focus of research, conducted in a social-psychological mode, and audience-based, crystallized into the Uses and Gratifications approach (McQuail, 1994). Theoretically and practically, for U&G scholars, however, the … They viewed the mass media as a means by which individuals connect or disconnect themselves with others and found that people bend the media to their needs more readily than the media overpower them. There exists a basic idea in this approach: audience members know media content and which media they can use to meet their needs. Functional theory influenced studies on communication from the 1920s to the 1940s. We select music not only to fit a particular mood but also in attempts to show empowerment or other socially conscience motives. It is normally affected by single ends, demand and desire. While it was easy to question the agency of media consumers who had three television networks from which to choose, it‘s much harder to argue that a consumer who now has 100 cable channels and Internet-streaming video is not making his own decisions. This is because they selectively choose, attend to, perceive and retain the media messages on the basis of their needs and beliefs, among others. Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch (1974) provided a framework for understanding the correlation between media and audience under five. 2045 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[2012 61]/Info 2011 0 R/Length 144/Prev 417640/Root 2013 0 R/Size 2073/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream [1] Concepts in Uses and Gratification Theory: Unlike other media effect theories that focus on "what media do to people", UGT is about “what people do… Theory Implication Uses and gratifications theory focuses on why and what audiences do with mass communication tools (Katz, 1959; Klapper, 1963). The Uses and Gratification Theory propounded by Elihu Katz, Jay Blumler and Michael Gurevitch in 1974 was used. HISTORY The Uses and Gratification Theory was developed by Jay G. Blumler and Elihu Katz on 1970s, and was having its first formal presentation on 1974s. This idea claims that people are very aware of their motives and choices and are able to explain them verbally, if necessary. The medium that provides the most satisfaction for a person will be used more often than other types. After that, a shift which rediscovered the relationship between media and people occurred and led to establishment of Uses and Gratifications approach. For these diverse dimensions of usage satisfaction, psychologist Herzog (1944) marked them with the term ―gratifications.‖. Much early effects research adopted the experimental or quasi-experimental approach, in which communication conditions were manipulated in search of general lessons about how better to communicate, or about the unintended consequences of messages (Klapper, 1960). Much early effects research adopted the experimental or quasi-experimental approach, in which communication conditions were manipulated in search of general lessons about how better to communicate, or about the unintended consequences of messages (Klapper, 1960). Dating back to the 1940s, researchers became interested in the reasons for listening to different radio programmes, such as soap operas and quizzes, as well as daily newspaper (Lazrsfeld & Stanton, 1944, 1949; Herzog, 1944; Warner & Henry, 1948.) This belongs to the indirect effect theory. If there are any effects, these are consciously or at least actionaly intended. Some basic assumptions of the approach were proposed when it was rediscovered during that era. Each individual has unique uses to which the media attempts to meet such gratifications. For instance, radio soap operas were found to satisfy their listeners with advice, support, or occasions for emotional release (Herzog, 1944; Warner and Henry, 1948); rather than just offering information, newspaper was also discovered to be important to give readers a sense of security, shared topics of conversation and a structure to the daily routine (Berelson, 1949). Jay Blumler and Denis McQuail The studies of Katz and his colleagues laid a theoretical foundation of building the Uses and Gratifications approach. A chance of receiving factual data about one‘s motivation to choosing a particular medium improves with how recent the behavior being questioned is. This theory gives alternative choices on media for the audience. It is the theory which explains how people use media for their need and gratification. (Blumler & Katz, 1974). It is asserted that the emergence of computer-mediated communication has revived the significance of uses and gratifications. The assumption is that the people influence the effects that the mass media have on them. Other research at that time looked into children’s comics and the absence of newspapers during a newspaper strike. Definition: Uses and gratification theory (UGT) is an audience-centered approach that explains how people use the media for their own needs and get satisfied when their needs are fulfilled. It explains how people use the media for their own need and get satisfied when their needs are fulfilled. There are several needs and gratification for people which are categorized into five namely, Cognitive needs, Affective needs, Personal Integrative needs, Social Integrative needs and Tension-free needs. This theory can be said to have a user/audience-centered approach .Even for communication (say inter-personal) people refer to the media for the topic they discuss with themselves. Some basic assumptions of the approach were proposed when it was rediscovered during that era. 3 R��jJ��iPM>|ڭ��8�!�}��'�.h_��p�0~��@�j�����뽽�h?_��W��5@�A6|�&��=0lu��[:�f��yp1�����E�_4��*4�W���'߳�{�N��Q��^���G����y�w�u�4�擷����k�.�~}f/�&�z4}�F� First studies happened on this theory in the 1940s. Uses and gratifications theory, which has its roots in the communications literature, can be an integral part of developing better scales and measurement instruments for social media marketers. In a study Katz, Gurevitch & Haas (1973), the Uses and Gratifications research was explored. It suggests that people‘s needs influence what media they would choose, how they use certain media and what gratifications the media give them. *! The theorists believe that the audience can only determine the value of the media content. Uses and gratification theory (UGT) is an audiencecentered approach that focuses on what people do with media, as opposed to what media does to people. After that, a shift which rediscovered the relationship between media and people occurred and led to establishment of uses and gratifications approach. They suggest that media users seek out a medium source that best fulfills the needs of the user and they have alternate choices to satisfy their need. Blumler and Katz values are clearly seen by the fact that they believe that media consumers can choose the influence media has on them as well as the idea that users choose media alternatives merely as a means to an end. This focuses on the idea that each individual has several needs. h�b```���o�@(����������AM�U��&�����n/8�TJ��C��(p0�Qd�< F��I~���_�d ��H`+hV��MMf��"�j�`�f�P%���RO��l�,�?�z�� c����h`�@l�Rdw �Q�J�� �FP,��a:H�1��iy � �5�A��[�\FU&e�}L���2md�`��t�q�3��L%�.�c'�-��!�c��Y�� ȼ���ZA��;��Q``���E The UGT refers to the study of the gratifications or benefits that attract and hold users to different media and various contents that fulfill the user’s psychological and social needs (Dunne et al., 2010). As a broader perspective among communication researches, it provides a framework for understanding the processes by which media participants seek information or content selectively, commensurate with their needs and interests (Katz et al, 1974). 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